“N” – IT Outsourcing Vocabulary

  • Nagware – Nagware, also known as annoyware, is a type of shareware software. Other types of shareware include demoware, crippleware, freeware, adware, and even spyware. Nagware reminds or nags the user to register it by paying a fee. It usually does this by popping up a message when the user starts the program or, worse, intermittently while the user is using the application. These messages can appear as windows obscuring part of the screen or message boxes that can quickly be closed.
  • Name Binding – In programming languages, name binding refers to the association of values with identifiers. An identifier bound to a value is said to reference that value. Since computers themselves have no notion of identifiers, there is no binding at the machine language level name binding is an abstraction provided by programming languages. Binding is intimately connected with scoping, as scope determines when binding occurs.
  • Nanika – Nanika is a desktop accessory application developed by Sagawa Toyoaki. Nanika is composed of three parts: ‘materia’, which is the basic foundation of Nanika system; ‘shell’, which can be described as a skin; ‘ghost’, which is a pseudo-AI engine. Nanika is heavily influenced by Japanese anime, such as Kanon and Ghost in the Shell.
  • NanoCAD – NanoCAD is a Java applet that was intended to eventually evolve into a useful computer-aided design system for nanotechnology. While that goal has yet to come to fruition, NanoCAD has at least influenced the direction of more advanced projects such as OpenChem and Fungimol.
  • NASM: Netwide Assembler – Netwide Assembler(NASM) is a free software Intel x86 assembler. It can be used to write both 16-bit and 32-bit (IA-32) programs. 32-bit programs can be written for NASM in such a way that they are portable between any 32-bit x86 OSes, if the right libraries are used.
  • Natural Docs – Natural Docs is a multi-language documentation generator written in Perl and licensed under the GPL. It attempts to keep the comments written in source code just as readable as the generated documentation. It is written and maintained by Greg Valure.
  • Natural Language – Natural language refers to a language spoken or written by humans, as opposed to a language used to program or communicate with computers. Natural language understanding is one of the hardest problems of artificial intelligence due to the complexity, irregularity and diversity of human language and the philosophical problems of meaning.
  • NetBSD – NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. It was the second open source BSD variant to be formally released, after 386BSD, and continues to be actively developed. Noted for its portability and quality of design and implementation, it is often used in embedded systems and as a starting point for the porting of other operating systems to new architectures.
  • News Aggregator – A news aggregator refers to a system including software application, webpage or service that collects syndicated content using RSS and other XML feeds from weblogs and mainstream media sites. Aggregators improve upon the time and effort needed to regularly check websites of interest for updates, creating a unique information space or “personal newspaper.” An aggregator is able to subscribe to a feed, check for new content at user-determined intervals, and retrieve the content. The content is sometimes described as being “pulled” to the subscriber, as opposed to “pushed” with email or other channels. Unlike recipients of some “pushed” information, the aggregator user can easily unsubscribe from a feed.
  • NF: Normal Form – Normal Forms (NFs) are the structures and algorithms to normalize a relational database. One can only describe a database as having a normal form if the relationships between quantities have been rigorously defined. It is possible to use set theory to express this knowledge once a problem domain has been fully understood, but most database designers model the relationships in terms of an “idealized schema”.
  • NLP: Natural Language Processing – Natural language processing(NLP) refers to the computer understanding, analysis, manipulation, and/or generation of natural language. NLP is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. Natural language generation systems convert information from computer databases into normal-sounding human language, and natural language understanding systems convert samples of human language into more formal representations that are easier for computer programs to manipulate.
  • No-CD Crack – A No-CD crack is a special computer program used to play computer games without having to insert the CD-ROM.This act is a form of software cracking. No-CD cracks can be found on the Internet from many websites or other various filesharing networks.
  • Nodezilla – Nodezilla is a peer-to-peer network software written in C++ and Java, released under the GNU General Public License. Technically, Nodezilla is a secured, distributed and fault-tolerant routing system (aka Grid network). Its main purpose is to serve as a link for distributed services built on top of it (like chat, efficient video multicasting streaming, File Sharing, secured file store.
  • Non-code resource – Non-code resource is a resource containing the data structures on which the program operates, for example, ‘WIND’, ‘DLOG’, ‘DITL’, or ‘SIZE’ resources. The resource compiler Rez or a resource editor may be used to create non-code resources.
  • Non-compressed sound data – Non-compressed sound data is the sampled-sound data that has not been subjected to audio compression or that has been decompressed.
  • Nonlinear Programming – In mathematics, nonlinear programming (NLP) is the process of solving a system of equalities and inequalities over a set of unknown real variables, along with an objective function to be maximized or minimized.
  • Non-Printable Character – Non-Printable Character is a character that doesn’t have a corresponding character letter to its corresponding ASCII code. Examples would be the Linefeed, which is ASCII character code 10 decimal, the Carriage Return, which is 13 decimal, or the bell sound, which is decimal 7. On a PC, you can often add non-printable characters by holding down the Alt key, and typing in the decimal value. There are other character encoding schemes, but ASCII is the most prevalent.
  • Non-Proprietary Software – Non-proprietary software, the opposite of proprietary software, refers to the software that has no proprietary restrictions attached to it, particularly the restriction about the access to the source code. Proprietary software is software where the source code has not been made available, or it is protected by restrictive licensing clauses. Non-proprietary software is not a widely used term and has no generally accepted definition. It is sometimes used as an umbrella term for the many alternative terms for free software. 
  • Nonrelocatable Block – Nonrelocatable block is a block whose location in the heap is fixed. This block can’t be moved during heap compaction or other memory operations.
  • NonStop SQL – NonStop SQL is a relational database product originally produced at Tandem Computers using the pioneering Ingres source code from University of California, Berkeley. NonStop is the “brand name” for Tandem’s suite of high-availabiliy products, a brand that survived Tandem’s takeover by Compaq, and today after Compaq’s takeover by HP.
  • Nonvolatile Register – Nonvolatile register is a register whose contents must be preserved across subroutine calls. If a routine changes the value of a nonvolatile register, it must save the old value on the stack before changing the register and restore that value before returning.
  • Normalization in Database – IIn relational databases, normalization is a process that eliminates redundancy, organizes data efficiently, reduces the potential for anomalies during data operations and improves data consistency. The formal classifications used for quantifying “how normalized” a relational database is are called normal forms.
  • Novell ZENworks – Novell ZENworks, a suite of software products developed and maintained by Novell, Inc. for computer systems management, aims to manage the entire lifecycle of servers, of desktop PCs (both Windows-based and Linux-based), of laptops, and of handheld devices (such as PDAs).
  • NPL: Netscape Public License – The Netscape Public License (NPL) is an open-source license, one of the licenses under which Mozilla is distributed. Its most notable feature is that it gives the original developer of Mozilla (Netscape, now a subsidiary of Time Warner), the right to distribute modifications made by other contributors under whatever terms it desires, including commercial terms, without granting similar rights to those other contributors in respect of the contribution of the original developer.
  • NuCalc – NuCalc, also known as Graphing Calculator, is the name of a computer software tool, made by the company Pacific Tech, capable of performing many graphing calculator functions. It can graph inequalities and vector fields, as well as functions in two, three, or four dimensions. It supports several different coordinate systems, and can solve equations. It is available for Mac OS (under the name Graphing Calculator) and Microsoft Windows.
  • Numerical Analysis – Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). Some of the problems it deals with arise directly from the study of calculus; other areas of interest are real variable or complex variable questions, numerical linear algebra over the real or complex fields, the solution of differential equations, and other related problems arising in the physical sciences and engineering.