“F” – IT Outsourcing Vocabulary

  • Fourth-Generation Language : A fourth-generation programming language (4GL) is a programming language closer to human languages than typical high-level programming languages. Such languages arose after the introduction of modern, block-structured third-generation programming languages, which improved the process of software development. Most 4GLs are used to access databases. For example, a typical 4GL command is FIND ALL RECORDS WHERE COMPANY IS “JAVVIN”
  • FASM: Flat Assembler: Flat Assembler(FASM) is a free, multiple-pass, Intel-style assembler supporting the IA-32 and x86-64 architectures. FASM is written in assembly language, comes with full source. The project was started in 1999 by Tomasz Grysztar.   It is noted for its fast speed, size optimizations, portability, powerful macro capabilities, and online forum community. However, it uses (almost) no command-line options. Binaries/sources are available for Linux, Windows (w/ IDE), DOS, OpenBSD etc. , MenuetOS, OctaOS, and Dex4u. FASM contains bindings to the Windows GUI and OpenGL. All versions of FASM can directly output any of the following: flat binary, ELF or COFF (classic or MS) objects, or executables in either MZ, ELF or PE format. An unofficial port targeting the ARM architecture (FASMARM) exists
  • FreeDoom : FreeDoom is a Doom WAD file intended to be used instead of the copyrighted file from the original Doom and Doom II. The idea is that since the source to Doom is released as open source you can combine the free game engine with the free WAD to create an entirely free game. This also makes it possible to use all user-made WADs that require the original (and copyrighted) WAD by replacing it
  • FSML: Financial Services Markup Language: Financial Services Markup Language(FSML), a data description language based on the metalanguage Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), was developed to create financial documents for delivery over the Internet, including eCheck and their associated documentation. FSML is a set of markup symbols or codes that allows its users to define the individual items that compose a document, assemble items into larger document parts that take on a contextual meaning, and enable the screening of a document for digital signatures, endorsement, additions, or deletions
  • Free Software License: Free software license refers to a license which grants permissions to the recipient to remove any ownership issues which would otherwise prevent the software from being free software. With free software license, recipients of the software is granted the freedom to modify and redistribute the software by the copyright holder
  • FOP: Formatting Objects Processor: Formatting Objects Processor(FOP) is an XSL-FO processor written in Java, which provides the feature to convert XSL-FO files to PDF or direct-printable-files. FOP was originally developed by James Tauber who donated it to the Apache Software Foundation in 1999. It is part of the Apache XML project
  • FastCAD : FastCAD is a 2D and 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) program for Windows, which uses FCW as the file extension. It includes 3d modeling and rendering, symbol definition editing, and advanced capabilities for working with multiple drawings and overlays. FastCAD is written in assembler and will run well on basic hardware
  • Fibonacci Number Program: Fibonacci number program is a popular program in many beginning computer science courses, introducing the concept of recursion by calculating and printing the Fibonacci numbers. In general, however, a recursive algorithm to compute Fibonacci numbers is extremely inefficient when compared to other algorithms, such as iterative or matrix equation algorithms
  • FORTRAN: FORTRAN is the oldest high-level programming language, designed by John Backus for IBM in the late 1950s. FORTRAN is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. It is still in use today, particularly for scientific applications that require extensive mathematical computations. The two most common versions of FORTRAN are FORTRAN IV and FORTRAN 77. A new ISO and ANSI standard for FORTRAN, called FORTRAN-90, was developed in the early 90s
  • FMV: Full Motion Video: Full motion video (FMV) is a popular term for pre-recorded TV-quality movie or animation in a video game. FMV is simply a playback of something that was previously recorded. With modern computer hardware, games are rendered at much higher resolutions than typical FMVs, resulting in FMVs being easily spottable as “lower quality” than the game itself. In this case, while a pre-rendered FMV may use more advanced effects than possible in-game, it is considered lower quality due to being seen at a lower resolution
  • Fetch-and-add CPU instruction: Fetch-and-add CPU instruction is a special instruction that automatically modifies the contents of a memory location. It is used to implement Mutual exclusion and concurrent algorithms in multiprocessor systems
  • Filename Extension: Filename extension is a portion of a filename, following the point after the individual file name. Filename extenson indicates the type of data stored in the file. Many operating systems use filename extensions, e. g. Unix,MS-DOS. Examples include “c” for C source code, “doc” for Miscrosft word, “ps” for PostScript, “txt” for text fle, etc
  • Fourier Transform: The Fourier Transform, named after Joseph Fourier, is an integral transform that re-expresses a function in terms of sinusoidal basis functions, i. e. as a sum or integral of sinusoidal functions multiplied by some coefficients (“amplitudes”). Fourier Transform technique is used to evaluate the importance of various frequency cycles in a time series pattern
  • FAST: Federation Against Software Theft: Federation Against Software Theft(FAST) is a non-profit organisation, formed in 1984 by the software industry with the aim of eradicating software theft in the UK. In addition to prosecuting organisations and individuals for software theft, FAST set up a campaign of public education and awareness to ensure that users of commercial software understand the effects of software theft. FAST gives a member organisation, which has signed a Code of Ethics and is committed to the carrying out of a regular software audit, a period of grace before bringing action if there is evidence of irregularities by the member organisation
  • FreeSBIE: FreeSBIE is a LiveCD (LiveDistro) type of operating system that is able to load directly from a bootable CD without any installation process and without any hard disk. It is based on the FreeBSD operating system
  • Flex Lexical Analyser Generator:   The Flex lexical analyser generator (Flex) is a free software alternative to Lex. Flex is a tool for generating scanners: programs which recognized lexical patterns in text. Flex reads the given input files, or its standard input if no file names are given, for a description of a scanner to generate
  • Fifth-Generation Programming Language: Fifth-generation programming language (5GL) is a programming language based around solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. Most constraint-based and logic programming languages and some declarative languages are fifth-generation languages. Fifth-generation languages are used mainly in artificial intelligence research. Prolog, OPS5, and Mercury are the best known fifth-generation languages
  • Functional Programming Language: Functional programming languages, based on the functional programming paradigm, is a type of programming languages that consist of a set of (possibly recursive) function definitions and an expression whose value is output as the program’s result. Functional programing languages are one kind of declarative language. They are based on the typed lambda calculus with constants. There are no side-effects to expression evaluation so an expression. Furthermore, an expression can always be replaced by its value without changing the overall result (referential transparency). Functional programming languages have largely been emphasized in academia rather than in commercial software development. Notable exceptions are Erlang (highly-concurrent telecom applications), J and K (financial analysis), and domain-specific programming languages like XSLT. Important influences on functional programming have been the lambda calculus, the APL programming language, the Lisp programming language, and more recently the Haskell programming language
  • Fiora: Fiora was a Computer role-playing game originally inspired by various bots floating around IRC’s EsperNet servers. It took many elements from Tactics Ogre, and derived its turn system from different aspects of James “Iyouboushi’s” Kaiou bot and Craig’s Future bot
  • FreeBASIC: FreeBASIC is an open source (under GPL) 32-bit, BASIC programming language compiler. It is designed to be syntax compatible with QuickBASIC, while expanding on the language and capabilities. It compiles for DOS, Microsoft Windows and Linux, and is being ported to other platforms
  • FileMaker Pro: FileMaker Pro is a desktop-based relational database management system from FileMaker Inc. , similar to Microsoft Access. FileMaker was one of a handful of database applications released on the Apple Macintosh in the 1980s
  • FSM: Finite State Machine: A finite state machine (FSM) or finite automaton is a model of behavior composed of states, transitions and actions. A state stores information about the past, i. e. it reflects the input changes from the system start to the present moment. A transition indicates a state change and is described by a condition that would need to be fulfilled to enable the transition. An action is a description of an activity that is to be performed at a given moment. In addition to their use in modeling reactive systems, finite state automata are significant in many different areas, including linguistics, computer science, philosophy, biology, mathematics, and logic
  • Fibonacci Numbers: For example, the first Fibonacci numbers for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, are – 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10946 In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers is a sequence of numbers defined recursively by the Fibonacci rule: after two starting values, each number is the sum of the two numbers before it
  • Firmware: Firmware is software that is embedded in a hardware device. It is often provided on flash ROMs or as a binary image file that can be uploaded onto existing hardware by a user. The firmware typically implements a portion of the network protocols, security mechanisms and administrative capabilities of the hardware device
  • FreeTDS: FreeTDS is a free open source programming library, that implements the Tabular Data Stream protocol. It can be used in place of Sybase’s db-lib or ct-lib libraries. It also includes an ODBC library. It allows many open source applications such as Perl and PHP (or your own C or C++ program) to connect to Sybase ASE or Microsoft SQL Server
  • FSF: Free Software Foundation: Free Software Foundation(FSF) is an organisation devoted to the creation and dissemination of free software, i. e. software that is free from licensing fees or restrictions on use. The Foundation’s main work is supporting the GNU project with a basic belief that information is community property and all software source should be shared
  • FreeBSD: FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. 4BSD operating systems. It runs on processors compatible with the Intel x86 family, as well as on many other processors such as AMD64 and PowerPC processors. It also runs on the PC-98 architecture. Support for the ARM and MIPS architectures is currently in development
  • Free Software : Free software, according to the definition of the Free Software Foundation (FSF), refers to the software that everyone is free to copy, redistribute and modify. That implies that it must be available as source code. It does not imply that it is free of charge, so anyone can sell free software so long as they don’t impose any new restrictions on its redistribution or use
  • FAT: File Allocation Table : File Allocation Table (FAT) is file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and is the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to Windows Me. The FAT file system is an ideal format for floppy disks and solid-state memory cards, and a convenient way of sharing data between disparate operating systems installed on the same computer (a dual boot environment). FAT is replaced by New Technology File System (NTFS) since the release of Windows NT
  • FAB: FORTRAN Assembly Program: FORTRAN Assembly Program (FAP) was a macro FORTRAN assembler for the IBM 709, 7090, and 7094 computers of the 1950s and 60s
  • FTP Client: FTP client is a software installed on a workstation which uses the FTP protocol to connect to an FTP server to transfer files. Basic FTP clients are part of operating systems, including Windows, DOS, Linux and Unix. However, many enhanced clients are available typically as shareware/freeware for Windows and as free software for Unix-like systems. Many web browsers have built-in FTP clients as well. Commercial FTP clients also exist with high performance or advanced features
  • Forward Compatible: Forward compatible, also known as upward compatible, refers to software that runs not only on the computer for which it was designed, but also on newer and more powerful models. Forward compatibility is important because it means you can move to a newer, larger, and more sophisticated computer without converting your data. An example of upward/forward compatibility is the specification that a web browser ignore HTML tags not recognised. Ignoring data or application instructions not recognized is the typical behavior of forward compatible systems
  • FPA: Function Point Analysis : Function point analysis (FPA) is a method used to gauge the size and complexity of computer software, employing a function point as a unit of measure. Function points are a unit measure for software size, much like an hour is to measure time
  • FrontPage: FrontPage is Microsoft HTML editor to be used to create large complex Web sites. FrontPage is a WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) editor, meaning that you can create the Web page exactly as you want it to look on the screen, and the program adds the HTML source code necessary to make sure that the page looks right in a Web browser
  • FLAC: Free Lossless Audio Codec: Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is a popular free audio compression codec that is lossless. Unlike lossy codecs such as MP3 and AAC, it does not remove any information from the audio stream and is suitable both for everyday playback and for archiving audio collections. “Free” means that the specification of the stream format can be implemented by anyone without prior permission, and that neither the FLAC format nor any of the implemented encoding/decoding methods is covered by any patent. The sources for libFLAC and libFLAC++ are available under Xiph. org’s BSD license and the sources for flac, metaflac, and the plugins are available under the GPL
  • First Generation Programming Language: First-generation programming language(1GL) is a machine-level programming language, which was written in 1s and 0s. There is no compiler or translator required and it can be understood and used by a CPU directly. The code using 1GL can run very fast and efficiently since it is directly executed by the CPU. However, machine language is somewhat more difficult to learn than higher generational programming languages, and it is far more difficult to edit if errors occur. Furthermore code portability is significantly reduced in the 1GL based code. First-generation programming language is mainly used now on very ancient computers. Machine level programming still finds a use in several areas of modern programming with the help of native-code compilers which creates machine language, usually from a higher-level language
  • FireFox: Firefox, also known as Mozilla Firefox, is a free, open source, cross-platform, graphical web browser developed by the Mozilla Corporation and hundreds of volunteers. Firefox includes an integrated pop-up blocker, tabbed browsing, live bookmarks, support for open standards, and an extension mechanism for adding functionality. Although other browsers have some of these features, Firefox became the first such browser to include them all and achieve wide adoption
  • Fat Binary: A fat binary, also known as multiarchitecture binary, is a computer program that is native to multiple instruction set architectures (ISA) and thus can be run on multiple processor types. The usual method of implementation is to include a version of the machine code for each ISA, resulting in a file n times larger than a normal one-architecture binary
  • Functional Programming: Functional programming is a programming paradigm that conceives computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. Functional programming emphasizes the application of functions, in contrast to imperative programming, which emphasizes changes in state and the execution of sequential commands. Functional programming is defined more by a set of common concerns and themes than any list of distinctions from other paradigms. Often considered important are higher-order and first-class functions, closures, and recursion. Other common features of functional programming languages are continuations, Hindley-Milner type inference systems, non-strict evaluation (including, but not limited to, “laziness”), and monads