“E” – IT Outsourcing Vocabulary

  • EBNF: Extended Backus Naur form: Extended BackusNaur form (EBNF) is an extension and simplification of the original Backus–Naur form (BNF) metasyntax notation. Originally developed by Niklaus Wirth, the most commonly used variants of EBNF are currently defined by standards, most notably ISO-14977
  • EGCS: Experimental/Enhanced GNU Compiler System: Experimental/Enhanced GNU Compiler System(EGCS) was a compiler system which forked from the GNU Compiler System (GCC) in 1997 and was re-merged in April 1999. By 1991, GCC 1. x had reached a point of stability, but architectural limitations prevented many desired improvements, so the Free Software Foundation started to work on GCC 2. x
  • EFence: Electric Fence: Electric Fence (eFence) is a memory debugger written by Bruce Perens. It consists of a library which a programmer can link into his or her code to override the standard library memory management functions. eFence triggers a program crash when the memory error occurs, so a debugger can be used to inspect the code that caused the error
  • Evaluation Strategy: An evaluation strategy (or reduction strategy) for a programming language is a set of (usually deterministic) rules for defining the evaluation of expressions under β-reduction. Emphasis is typically placed on functions or operators — an evaluation strategy defines when and in what order the arguments to a function are evaluated, when they are substituted into the function, and what form that substitution takes. A language may combine several evaluation strategies; for example, C++ combines call-by-value with call-by-reference. Most languages that are predominantly strict use some form of non-strict evaluation for boolean expressions and if-statements
  • Emacs: Emacs is a class of text editors, possessing an extensive set of features, that are popular with computer programmers and other technically proficient computer users. Many versions of Emacs have appeared since 1975 when the original version was introduced, but nowadays there are two that are commonly used: GNU Emacs, started by Richard Stallman in 1984 and still maintained by him, and XEmacs, a fork of GNU Emacs which was started in 1991 and has remained mostly compatible. Both use a powerful extension language, Emacs Lisp, that allows them to handle tasks ranging from writing and compiling computer programs to browsing the web
  • Emulation: Emulation refers to the capabilities of a program or device to imitate another program or device. Emulation attempts to model, to various degrees, the state of the device being emulated. Emulation tricks other systems into believing that the device is really some other emulated device. A example of emulation is to mimic the experience of running arcade games or console games on personal computers. In a networked environment, a computer acts as if it is another kind of computer or terminal. For example, a PC user opens a remote terminal session to a Unix, so it may run a program that emulates an Unix terminal
  • EXtensible Markup Language (XML): Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of SGML, defines a syntax that lets you create markup languages to specify information structures. Information structures define the type of information, for example, subscriber name or address, not how the information looks (bold, italic, and so on). External processes can manipulate these information structures and publish them in a variety of formats. Text markup language designed to enable the use of SGML on the World Wide Web. XML allows you to define your own customized markup language. XML tags are not predefined. You must define your own tags. XML uses a Document Type Definition (DTD) or an XML Schema to describe the data. XML is not a replacement for HTML. Actually, XML and HTML are complimentary to each other
  • ESC/Java: Extended Static Checker for Java: Extended Static Checker for Java (ESC/Java) is a Compaq (now part of HP) programming tool that attempts to find common run-time errors in Java programs by static analysis of the program text. Users can control the amount and kinds of checking by annotating their programs with specially formatted comments or pragmas
  • Emulator: Emulator is a software or hardware device with emulation program to imitate another program or device. A software emulator allows computer programs to run on a platform (computer architecture and/or operating system) other than the one for which they were originally written. A hardware emulator is an emulator which takes the form of a hardware device. Examples include printer emulators inside the ROM of the printer, and FPGA-based emulators
  • Exec Shield : Exec Shield is a security patch for the Linux kernel that adds an NX bit to x86 CPUs. It was developed by Ingo Molnar of Red Hat, and is used as a part of Fedora Core 1, 2 and 3. Exec Shield attempts to flag data memory as non-executable and program memory as non-writeable. This suppresses many security exploits, such as those stemming from buffer overflows and other techniques relying on overwriting data and inserting code into those structures. Exec Shield also supplies some address space layout randomization for the mmap() and heap base
  • Emulation Mode : Emulation Mode is an operational state of a computer when it is running a foreign program under emulation. For example, a PC user opens a remote terminal session to a Unix, and it may run a program that emulates an Unix terminal
  • Enterprise Software: Enterprise Software is a type of software that solves an enterprise wide problem (rather than a departmental problem) and usually enterprise software is written using Enterprise Software Architecture. Due to the cost of building what is often proprietary software only large organizations attempt to build software that models the entire business enterprise and is the core system of governing the enterprise and the core of business communications within the enterprise. Enterprise software is often categorized by the business function that it automates – such as accounting software, human resource management or sales force automation software. It also varies by industry verticals due to common business processes within a specific industry. There are enterprise systems devised for health care, for example, or for manufacturing enterprises
  • EIAS: Electric Image Animation System: The Electric Image Animation System (EIAS) is a 3D computer graphics package published by EI Technology Group. It currently runs on the Mac OS X, Windows, and Solaris platforms. EIAS’s primary competitors in the integrated 3D package space are Autodesk with Maya and 3D Studio Max, Avid with Softimage|XSI, Maxon with Cinema 4D, and Newtek with LightWave 3D
  • EZ Publish: EZ publish is a popular enterprise open source (under the GNU GPL license) content management system (CMS) and development framework, developed, distributed, and supported by eZ systems with input and help from an active user and developer community. While the development has not forked, there also exists a modified version called “edition pieserver”
  • Editor : Editor in computing refers to an application program that enables you to create and edit some types of files. There are many different types of editors, such as: text editor, an application to edit plain text; hex editor, an application to edit binary data; HTML editor, an application to edit webpages; XML editor, an application to edit XML data; digital audio editor, an application to edit audio data; raster graphics editor; vector graphics editor; level editor, an application to edit levels of computer games; etc
  • Extreme Programming : Extreme Programming (XP) is a software engineering methodology developed by Kent Beck, the most prominent of several agile software development methodologies. It prescribes a set of day-to-day practices for developers and managers; the practices are meant to embody and encourage particular values. Extreme Programming is effectively used with small teams of developers who need to develop software quickly in an environment of rapidly-changing requirements
  • EFSM: Extended Finite State Machine Model: Extended Finite State Machine Model (EFSM) is an enhanced model based on the traditional finite state machine (FSM), which is a model of behavior composed of states, transitions and actions. In a conventional FSM, the transition is associated with a set of input Boolean conditions & a set of output Boolean functions. In an EFSM model, the transition can be expressed by an if statement. If trigger conditions are all satisfied, the transition is fired, bringing the machine from the current state to the next state and performing the specified data operations. The models are used widely in modeling reactive systems, linguistics, computer science, philosophy, biology, mathematics, and logic
  • Enterprise Software Architecture: Enterprise Software Architecture, also known as Enterprise Architecture, is the practice of applying a comprehensive and rigorous method for describing a current and/or future structure and behaviour for an organization’s processes, information systems, personnel and organizational sub-units, so that they align with the organization’s core goals and strategic direction. Although often associated strictly with information technology, it relates more broadly to the practice of business optimization in that it addresses business architecture, performance management and process architecture as well
  • Emacs LISP: Emacs LISP is a dialect of the Lisp programming language used by the GNU Emacs and XEmacs text editors (which will be collectively referred to as Emacs in this article. ) It is used for implementing most of the editing functionality built into Emacs, the remainder being written in C. Users of Emacs commonly write Emacs Lisp code to customize and extend Emacs
  • ECM: Enterprise Content Management: Enterprise Content Management (ECM) is any of the strategies and technologies employed in the information technology industry for managing the capture, storage, security, revision control, retrieval, distribution, preservation and destruction of documents and content. ECM especially concerns content imported into or generated from within an organization in the course of its operation, and includes the control of access to this content from outside of the organization’s processes
  • Etnus TotalView : Etnus TotalView is a debugger for Unix-like and Mac OS X systems and supports C/C++ and Fortran. It allows process control down to the single thread, the ability to look at data for a single thread or all threads at the same time, and the ability to synchronize threads through breakpoints. TotalView integrates memory leak detection and other heap memory debugging features. Data analysis features help find anomalies and problems in the target program’s data, and the combination of visualization and evaluation points let the user watch data change as the program executes
  • Entropy : Entropy, a concept in physics, is a measrue of disorder or randomness of a system. In data compression, it is a measure of the amount of non-redundant and non-compressible data in an object (the amount that is not similar). In encryption, it is the amount of disorder or randomness that is added. In software, it is the disorder and jumble of its logic, which occurs after the program has been modified over and over
  • Extended ASCII : Extended ASCII, also known as high ASCII, is a set of codes using 8 bits for each character, instead of 7 bits as the basic ASCII set. The basic ASCII set provides it a total of 128 unique symbols. The extended ASCII character set gives it an additional 128 characters. The extra characters represent characters from foreign languages and special symbols for drawing pictures
  • External Command : In DOS and OS/2, external command is a function performed by a separate utility program that accompanies the operating system. Contrast with internal command