IT Outsourcing Vocabulary: Backup, Bug, Bootstrap, etc.

Introduction to Backup Systems

  • Backup: Backup is the process of copying data, software or other digital information on a separate media in addition to its original storage

What is Software Defect or Software Bug?

  • Bug: In computer programming, a bug, also called software bug, is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. Bugs arise from mistakes and errors, made by people, in either a program’s source code or its design. A program that contains a large number of bugs, and/or bugs that seriously interfere with its functionality, is said to be buggy. Reports about bugs in a program are referred to as bug reports, also called PRs (problem reports), trouble reports, CRs (change requests), and so forth

Bootstrap

  • Bootstrap: Bootstrap is an open source toolkit for developing with HTML, CSS, and JS. Quickly prototype your ideas or build your entire app with our Sass variables and mixins, responsive grid system, extensive prebuilt components, and powerful plugins built on jQuery.
  • Bootstrapping: Bootstrapping is a term used in Computer Programming to describe the techniques involved in writing a compiler (or assembler) in the target programming language which it is intended to compile
  • BI software: Business Intelligence Software: Business Intelligence software (BI Software) is a kind of sotware that enables users to obtain enterprise-wide information more easily. BI software tightly integrates querying, reporting, OLAP, data mining and data warehousing functions to enable users to obtain “all” the information they desire from their organization’s numerous databases. BI software should allow you to derive the transactions and summaries you need without having to know the sources (which databases, which servers, etc. )
  • bBlog: bBlog is a Web publishing and content management system system written in PHP and utilizing a MySQL database. bBlog is used to manage frequently updated Web content, especially Weblogs. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License and is available without charge. bBlog’s design goals are based around using the Smarty PHP templating engine, with compatible plugin and template formats. This makes it very easy to modify the look and functions of your blog
  • Bells and Whistles: Bells and whistles in software means those fancy features provided by an application. Typically, the term refers to features that are needed only in special cases or to features that make the program more visibly attractive. The term can be used either favorably or negatively
  • BetBug: BetBug is a downloadable software application that links users together so that they can share betting offers. BetBug effectively functions as a betting exchange. BetBug’s distributed network technology comes from P2P File sharing
  • Boolean Algebra: Boolean algebra is an algebraic structure (a collection of elements and operations on them obeying defining axioms) that captures essential properties of both set operations and logic operations. Specifically, it deals with the set operations of intersection, union, complement; and the logic operations of AND, OR, NOT. A Boolean algebra is also called a Boolean lattice
  • Byte-Code: Byte-code is a binary file containing an executable program, formed by a sequence of op code/data pairs. Byte-code is a sort of intermediate code that is more abstract than machine code. It is often treated as a binary file containing an executable program, much like an object module. Byte-code is called so because usually each opcode is one byte in length but the length of instruction code varies. Each instruction has one byte operation code from 0 to 255 (or as hexadecimal: 00 to FF) followed by parameters such as registers or memory address. This is a typical case, but the specification of bytecode largely varies in language
  • BASIC: BASIC is a simple computer language designed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz at Dartmouth College in 1963. It first ran on an IBM 704 on 1964-05-01. It was designed for quick and easy programming by students and beginners. BASIC exists in many dialects, and is popular on microcomputers with sound and graphics support
  • Business Software : Business software is generally any software program that helps a business increase productivity or measure their productivity. The term covers a large variation of uses within the business environment, and can be categorized by using a small, medium and large matrix. For example, accounting software is business software
  • Bottom-up Design: Bottom-up design, in contrast to the top down design, is one of the software design strategies in which individual parts of the system are specified in detail. The parts are then linked together to form larger components, which are in turn linked until a complete system is formed. Strategies based on this bottom-up information flow seem potentially necessary and sufficient because they are based on the knowledge of all variables that may affect the elements of the system
  • Bookmark: To return directly to the site, the user picks the page name from the list of saved bookmarks Bookmark, in computing world, is a facility for marking a specific place in electronic documentation to enable easy return to it. It is used in several types of software, including PDF files, electronic help files and tutorials within a program or online. Bookmarks are frequently used on the Web, to remember a uniform resource locator (URL) in order to return to it. Most Web browsers therefore have built-in bookmark facilities, whereby the browser stores the URL with the page name attached
  • BASH: Bourne-Again Shell: Bourne-Again SHell (BASH) is an interactive UNIX shell based on the traditional Bourne shell, but with increased functionality. BASH is the shell, or command language interpreter, that will appear in the GNU operating system. BASH is a sh-compatible shell that incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh). It is intended to conform to the IEEE POSIX P1003. 2/ISO 9945. 2 Shell and Tools standard. It offers functional improvements over sh for both programming and interactive use. In addition, most sh-scripts can be run by BASH without modification
  • Boolean logic: Boolean logic is a complete system for logical operations. It was named after George Boole, an English mathematician in the mid-19th century. Boolean logic has many applications in electronics, computer hardware and software. For example, in circuit design in electrical engineering, 0 and 1 may represent the two different states of one bit in a digital circuit, typically high and low voltage. Circuits are described by expressions containing variables, and two such expressions are equal for all values of the variables if, and only if, the corresponding circuits have the same input-output behavior. Furthermore, every possible input-output behavior can be modeled by a suitable Boolean expression. Basic logic gates such as AND, OR, and NOT gates may be used alone, or in conjunction with NAND, NOR, and XOR gates, to control digital electronics and circuitry
  • Brute Force Programing: Brute force programing refers a primitive programming style in which the programmer relies on the computer’s processing power instead of intelligence to simplify the problem. The brute-force programs are written in a heavy-handed, tedious way, full of repetition and devoid of any elegance or useful abstraction
  • Blogware: Blogware, also called weblog software or blog software, is a category of software which consists of a specialized form of Content Management Systems specifically designed for creating and maintaining weblogs. Most blogware applications have features such as facilitating authoring and editing of blog posts or articles, various linking and web syndication features, and the ability to easily publish the blog to the world wide web
  • BSD Daemon: BSD Daemon is the BSD operating system’s mascot, named after a daemon, a type of software program common on Unix-like operating systems. The copyright of the BSD Daemon is held by Marshall Kirk McKusick who tries to ensure that it is properly used to identify only BSD-based software and services
  • Bzip2: Bzip2 is an open source data compression algorithm and program developed by Julian Seward in 1996. The compressor’s stability and popularity grew over the next several years, and Seward released version 1. 0 in late 2000
  • Bot: RoBOTic Computer Ccontrolled Entity: A bot is a roBOTic computer controlled entity that simulates an online or LAN multiplayer human deathmatch opponent, team deathmatch opponent or a cooperative human player. Computer game bots work via artificial intelligence routines pre-programmed to suit the game map, game rules, game type and other parameters unique to each game. Bots are not only found in FPS PC games but also featured in several console games
  • B2evolution: B2evolution is a multi-lingual, multi-user, multi-blog publishing system written in PHP and backed by a MySQL database. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License and is available without charge
  • BRL-CAD: BRL-CAD is a Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) solid modeling Computer-aided design (CAD) system. BRL-CAD includes an interactive geometry editor, ray tracing support for graphics rendering and geometric analysis, computer network distributed framebuffer support, image-processing and signal-processing tools. The entire package is distributed in source code and binary form. BRL-CAD became an open source project on December 21, 2004. BRL-CAD now continues to be developed and maintained by a core community of open source developers ever since
  • Bedroom Programming : Bedroom programming is a computer programming practice which involves Software or Video Game development by one or a team of amateur programmers who program because they love it, and not for making money out of their software
  • Beta Test: Beta test is the computer system test prior to commercial release. Beta testing is the last stage of testing, and normally can involve sending the product to beta test sites outside the company for real-world exposure or offering the product for a free trial download over the Internet. Beta testing is often preceded by a round of testing called alpha testing
  • The major advantage of binary search trees is that the related sorting algorithms and search algorithms such as in-order traversal can be very efficient.
  • BoastMachine: BoastMachine is a web publishing application and content management system written in PHP using a MySQL database backend. BoastMachine is used to create, publish and manage weblogs. It is a free software licensed under the GPL
  • Bloatware: Bloatware, also called software bloat or fatware, is a type of software that requires lots of computer resources such as disk space and RAM. It is also used in a more general context to describe programs which appear to be using more system resources than necessary, or implementing extraneous features
  • BDS C: BD Software C Compiler: BD Software C Compiler (BDS C) is a compiler for a sizeable subset of the C programming language, that ran on and generated code for the Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 processors. It was written by Leor Zolman and first released in 1979. “BDS” stood for “Brain Damage Software”. BDS C was very popular and influential among CP/M users and developers in the 8-bit microcomputer era
  • Backward Compatible : Backward compatible refers to th new versions of software or hardware that is compatible with earlier models or versions of the same product. A new version of a program is said to be backward compatible if it can use files and data created with an older version of the same program. A computer is said to be backward compatible if it can run the same software as the previous model of the computer
  • BSS: Block Started by Symbol: Block Started by Symbol (BSS) was a pseudo-instruction in UA-SAP (United Aircraft Symbolic Assembly Program), and the assembler was developed in the mid-1950s for the IBM 704. The BSS keyword was later incorporated into FAP (FORTRAN Assembly Program), IBM’s standard assembler for its 709 and 7090/94 computers. It defined a label and reserved uninitialized space for a given number of words. In computer programming, . bss or bss is used by many compilers and linkers as the name of the data segment containing uninitialized variables. It is often referred to as the “bss section” or “bss segment”
  • BCNF: Boyce-Codd Normal Form: Boyce-Codd normal form (BCNF) is a structure and algorithm for the normalization of relational databases. BCNF requires that there be no non-trivial functional dependencies of attributes on something other than a superset of a candidate key (called a superkey). At this stage, all attributes are dependent on a key, a whole key and nothing but a key (excluding trivial dependencies, like A->A). A table is said to be in the BCNF if and only if it is in the 3NF and every non-trivial, left-irreducible functional dependency has a candidate key as its determinant. In more informal terms, a table is in BCNF if it is in 3NF and the only determinants are the candidate keys
  • Bit Rot: Bit rot is a colloquial computing term used either to describe gradual decay of storage media or to facetiously describe the spontaneous degradation of a software program over time. The later use of the term implies that software can literally wear out or rust like a physical tool. More commonly, bit rot refers to the decay of physical storage mediums
  • BSD/OS: BSD/OS, also known as BSDi and BSD/386, was a commercial version of the Berkeley Software Distribution operating system that had been developed by the University of California, Berkeley’s Computer Science Research Group in the 1970s and 1980s
  • Blue Martini Software: Blue Martini Software (Blue Martini Software, Inc. ) is a privately held software manufacturer and professional services provider based in San Mateo, California that sells and supports an eponymous e-commerce enterprise application that supports sales online, by phone, and at the point-of-purchase
  • BSP: Board Support Package: Board support package(BSP) is part of a software package that is processor or platform dependent. Typically, sample source code for the BSP for various processors is provided by the software package developer. To port the complete software package, the code in the sample BSP should be modified. Most commercial real-time operating systems have a BSP to make porting easy
  • Beta Version: A beta version, also known as beta release, usually represents the first version of a computer hardware or software that implements all features in the initial requirements specification. It is likely to be unstable but useful for internal demonstrations and previews to select customers, but not yet ready for release. Some developers refer to this stage as a preview, as a technical preview (TP) or as an early access
  • Blog Client : Blog client, also known as weblog client, is a software that can manage (post, edit) blogs from operating system with no need to launch a web browser. A typical blog client has an editor, a spell-checker and a few more options that simplify content creation and editing
  • Bounds-Checking Elimination: Bounds-checking elimination is a compiler optimization useful in programming languages or runtimes that enforce bounds checking, the practice of consistently checking every index into an array to verify that the index is within the defined valid range of indexes. Its goal is to detect which of these indexing operations do not need to be validated at runtime, and eliminating those checks
  • Boolean: Boolean, named after George Boole (an English mathematician in the mid-19th century) is a complete mathematical logic system. Boolean logic and algebra has many applications in electronics, computer hardware and software
  • Binding Time : Binding Time is the time at which decisions are made. In software programing, there are different types of binding times. Static or early binding happens at compile time and certain type information is used and sometimes then thrown away; dynamic binding or late or virtual binding happens at run time. An example of a static binding is a direct C function call: the function referenced by the identifier cannot change at runtime. An example of dynamic binding is dynamic dispatch, as in a C++ virtual method call
  • BSD: Berkeley Software Distribution: Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), also known as Berkeley System Distribution, is the UNIX derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley starting in the 1970s. The name is also used collectively for the modern descendants of these UNIX distributions. The BSD versions (4. 1, 4. 2, and 4. 3) and the commercial versions derived from them (SunOS, ULTRIX, Mt. Xinu, Dynix) held the technical lead in the Unix world
  • Budget Range: Budget range is the name given to software (usually video games) that is sold for a fraction (usually less than half) of a regular product price. While most of the software released under budget range are re-releases of successful products (such as Sony’s Platinum range), other labels (usually smaller, localized or “value” labels of larger companies) release their new games at budget prices to gather a broader audience
  • BitLord: BitLord is a BitTorrent client. It supports simultaneous downloads, download queue, selected downloads in torrent package, fast-resume, chatting, disk cache, speed limits, port mapping, proxy, ip-filter, etc. BitLord is an outdated repackaged BitComet client, which adds two new buttons to the toolbar for linking to pornography and gambling sites
  • BitTorrent Client: A BitTorrent client is a computer program that is used to download and upload files via the BitTorrent protocol. The first BitTorrent client was BitTorrent itself, developed by Bram Cohen. There are many BitTorrent clients were created later. Some are based on the original BitTorrent while some are completely rewritten. BitComet and BitLord are two examples of the BitTorrent clients
  • BST: Binary Search Tree: BST has the following properties: A binary search tree (BST), also called ordered binary tree, is a type of binary tree where the nodes are arranged in order: for each node, all elements in its left subtree are less-or-equal to the node (<=), and all the elements in its right subtree are greater than the node (>)
  • BSD license: Berkeley Software Distribution License: Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license is a type of license agreement for free software (a subset of open source software). The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. It is used most commonly for the Berkeley Software Distribution(BSD), a Unix-like operating system for which the license was named
  • Boost Library: Boost library is a collection of libraries that extend the functionality of C++. The libraries are licensed under the Boost Software License, a very open license designed to allow Boost to be used with any project. Several Boost libraries have been accepted for incorporation into the next library technical report of the C++ standard committee
  • BMRT: Blue Moon Rendering Tools: Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) is RenderMan-compliant photorealistic rendering systems. It was distributed as freeware. BMRT was a popular renderer with students and other people who were trying to learn the RenderMan interface. It also had some features PhotoRealistic RenderMan did not have at time, for example, raytracing
  • The left subtree of a node contains only values less than the node’s value.
  • A total order is defined on these values.
  • BSA: Business Software Alliance : Business Software Alliance (BSA), created by Microsoft in 1988, is an organization to combat software theft. The alliance includes the majority of leading software publishers such as Novell, Symantec, and Autodesk and is actively campaigning in over 65 countries. The BSA’s key missions include: 1. Lobbying to strengthen copyright laws and co-operation with law enforcement agencies. 2. Educating the public through marketing, roadshows, etc. 3. Bringing legal actions against counterfeiters. BSA’s aims are the same as the Federation Against Software Theft but it is not limited to the UK
  • BitComet: BitComet is a freeware client for BitTorrent. It supports simultaneous downloads, download queue, selected downloads in torrent package, fast-resume, chatting, disk cache, speed limits, port mapping, proxy, ip-filter, etc. BitComet also provides an embedded Internet Explorer window for the purpose of making torrent searching easier. A default list of torrent index sites is included, which users can modify to remove unwanted sites and add missing ones
  • Binary Tree: A binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children. Typically the child nodes are called a “left” pointer, a “right” pointer. The “root” pointer points to the topmost node in the tree. The left and right pointers recursively point to smaller “subtrees” on either side. One common use of binary trees is binary search trees; another is binary heaps
  • Binary Compatible : Binary compatible refers to that data files produced by one application/system that are exactly the same as data files produced by another application at the binary format level. Binary compatible avoids many of the conversion problems caused by importing and exporting data from one system to another. For example, many applications for Windows and the Macintosh that are binary compatible, which means that a file produced in a Windows environment is interchangeable with a file produced on a Macintosh
  • Boolean OR: Boolean OR is one of the operations in the Boolean algebra that is performed on a pair of one-digit binary numbers. The result is another one-digit binary number. For example, 0 OR 0 yields 0; All other combinations yield 1
  • Baitware : Baitware, similar to freeware, refers to the software with very limited or defective functions which is made available gratis/free of charge. Baitware is released to deceptively attract users and drive them to commercial products
  • BCX: Basic To C Translator: Basic To C Translator(BCX), an open source and free software, translates BASIC to C/C++ for compilation on various Win32 compilers. It is a small command line tool that takes a BASIC source code file and outputs a C/C++ source code file. The result can then be compiled using any of several popular C/C++ compilers, including non-commercial ones. Code can be compiled into 32-bit native Windows console mode programs, Windows GUI programs, and Dynamic Link Libraries
  • Boolean value: Boolean value, also known as boolean datatype, is a primitive datatype having two values: one and zero (sometimes called true and false). It is the special case of a binary numeric datatype of only one digit, or bit, and can also be represented in any other radix by restricting the range of allowed values for certain operations. This datatype is used in boolean and other operations such as: and (AND, &, *), or (OR, |, +), exclusive or/not equivalent (xor, NEQV, ^), equal (EQV, =, ==) and not (NOT, ~, . ) which correspond to some of the operations of Boolean algebra and arithmetic
  • Backup & Recovery: Backup & recovery are the combination of procedures that can restore lost data in the event of hardware or software failure. Routine backup of databases and logs of computer activity are part of a backup & recovery program
  • Boolean AND: Boolean AND is one of the operations in the Boolean algebra that is performed on a pair of one-digit binary numbers. The result is another one-digit binary number. For example, 1 AND 1 yields 1; all other combinations yield 0
  • BNF: Backus Naur Form : The Backus Naur form (BNF), also known as the Backus Naur formalism, Backus normal form, or Panini Backus Form, is a metasyntax used to express context-free grammars: that is, a formal way to describe formal languages. BNF is widely used as a notation for the grammars of computer programming languages, command sets and communication protocols, as well as a notation for representing parts of natural language grammars. Most textbooks for programming language theory and/or semantics document the programming language in BNF. Some variants, such as augmented Backus-Naur form (ABNF), have their own documentation
  • Boehm Garbage Collector: In computer science, Boehm-Demers-Weiser garbage collector, often simply known as Boehm GC, is a conservative garbage collector for C and C++, which is used by many projects that are implemented in C or C++, as well as by runtime environments for a number of other languages, including the Gnu Compiler for Java runtime environment, and the Mono implementation of the Microsoft . NET platform
  • Bundled Software: Bundled software refers to the software that comes free with the purchase of new hardware or with another purchased software. Bundled software usually is a variety of basic or demo programs, sometimes an encyclopedia, sample computer games, or other multimedia software
  • The right subtree of a node contains only values greater than or equal to the node’s value.
  • Bespoke Software: Bespoke software refers to the custom-made software products, including made-to-order software. Bespoke is a term used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere for an individually- or custom-made product or service. Typically, software companies offer packaged software with standard functions for all customers. Bespoke software addresses specific client needs that can’t be satisfied by packaged software. In the U. S. , bespoke software is often called custom or custom-designed software
  • Berkely Software Design: Berkely Software Design Inc. was a corporation which developed, sold licences to, and supported BSDi, a commercial and partially proprietary variant of the BSD operating system. It was founded by former members of the Computer Sciences Research Group at Berkeley, and the name was chosen for its similarity to “Berkeley Software Distribution” the source of its primary product. It contributed code and resources back to the open source BSD community